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Cash Reserve Ratio

Nov 20, 2023
Cash Reserve Ratio

In the complex world of banking and finance, concepts such as the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and the Cash Reserve Special Scheme (CRSS) of the Central Bank are important factors that impact the monetary stability and economic health of a country. These ideas might appear difficult at first, but they are extremely important in determining the financial environment of a nation.

Understanding these terms is not only crucial for financial institutions but also for businesses, investors, and the general public. In this article, we explain what CRR is, and how Cash Reserve Ratio works and delve into their significance.

What is Cash Reserve Ratio?

CRR meaning, the percentage of total deposits that commercial banks must maintain as cash reserves with the Reserve Bank of India. It is the portion of a bank's total deposit that must be maintained in liquid cash for financial stability with the RBI by law. This sum cannot be used by commercial banks for investments or loans.

By using CRR, the RBI makes sure banks have enough cash on hand to cover depositors' requests for cash withdrawals. As a result, it can also be used to change the quantity of money in the economy.

Key Objectives of the Cash Reserve Ratio

The key objectives of the cash reserve ratio are as follows:

1. CRR aids in limiting inflation. The RBI can raise CRR in an environment of rising inflation to stop banks from making more loans.

2. Additionally, CRR guarantees banks maintain a minimum amount of money on hand for consumers, even in times of high demand.

3. The reference rate for loans is CRR. Also referred to as the base rate for loans, this rate is the lowest that the banks will grant.

How is CRR Calculated?

The CRR is computed as follows:

CRR = (Total Bank Deposits) x (CRR Percentage)

For example, if a bank has total deposits of INR 100 million and the central bank's mandated CRR percentage is 4%, the bank must retain INR 4 million (INR 100 million x 4%) in cash with the central bank as part of its reserve requirements.

How does Cash Reserve Ratio Work?

The following details explain how CRR is calculated and how it functions:

CRR Calculation: The central bank determines the CRR, which is a particular percentage of a commercial bank's total deposits. For example, if a bank has a total deposit of INR 1,00,000 and the CRR rate is 4%, it will need to set aside INR 4,000 (4% of INR 1,00,000) as reserves.

Goal of CRR: According to the definition of cash reserve ratio, the main goal of CRR is to make sure banks have adequate liquidity to handle consumer withdrawals.

Use of Deposits: The bank may lend against or make investments with the remaining deposit after allocating the reserve.

Why does CRR Keep Changing?

The cash reserve ratio is continuously adjusted by the RBI to ensure the safety of customers and a stable economy. It guarantees that the banks have enough money to cover their clients' needs even in times of high withdrawal volume.

In addition, the RBI has the authority to alter the CRR in order to satisfy its other obligations, such as providing funds to stimulate the economy.

Making educated decisions and selecting the right financial product at the right time might be aided by understanding how CRR functions for banks and other financial institutions. The Cash Reserve Ratio serves as a safety net for the public as well as the economy.

How Does The Cash Reserve Ratio CRR Affect Interest Rates For Borrowers And Depositors?

In the banking sector, the CRR significantly affects interest rates for depositors as well as borrowers. This is how it affects them:


Greater CRR: The money supply declines as a result of the central bank's reduction in the amount of money available for lending. As a result, banks might increase borrower interest rates in order to offset the decreased liquidity and preserve profitability.

Lower CRR: On the other hand, when the central bank reduces the CRR, it often results in more liquidity, which lowers borrower interest rates and makes loans more accessible.


Greater CRR: As banks devote a bigger percentage to reserve requirements, a higher CRR may result in lower interest rates on deposits and fewer rewards for depositors.

Lower CRR: Because banks have more money available for lending when there is a lower CRR, depositors may receive greater returns, which results in relatively higher interest rates on deposits.

Difference Between CRR and SLR

It mandates that banks keep a predetermined portion of their deposits in cash or as deposits with the central bank. These serve as a safety net for the banking system and are not available for lending or investment. It requires banks to allocate a particular percentage of their deposits to certain liquid, low-risk assets, like gold, bonds, and government securities. The bank can still make some money from these assets.
CRR has direct control over the financial system's liquidity. The central bank can affect loan creation and the money supply by modifying the CRR. The control is less direct, but it still affects liquidity. SLR assets provide banks some flexibility in how they manage their liquidity because they can be sold or used as collateral.
Primarily intended to protect banks' solvency and stability. It aids in preserving general financial stability and defending the rights of depositors. SLR is primarily concerned with encouraging the growth of the government securities market and making sure banks invest a specific percentage of their assets in safe, low-risk securities.


Understanding the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and its impact on the banking system is crucial for anyone navigating the financial landscape. 

In order to achieve financial security and think about making big investments, like a house, you must collaborate with a reliable institution. SMFG Grihashakti Home Loans provide the assistance and adaptability required to fulfill your dream of becoming a homeowner. Explore our home loans to take the next step towards your ideal residence. They are made to offer a safe and easy route to homeownership in an always-changing world of finance. Apply now!


1. What is the current Cash Reserve Ratio rate in India?

The current Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) rate in India is 4.50%.

2. What is the formula for Cash Reserve Ratio?

The Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) can be calculated using the following formula:

CRR = (Bank Cash Reserves / Total Deposit Liabilities) times 100.

This formula shows "Total Deposit Liabilities" as the total amount of deposits held by the bank's clients and "Cash Reserves of the Bank" as the amount of cash that banks must keep on hand with the central bank.

3. Can CRR can be used as a means for Financial Inclusion?

Financial inclusion can be achieved through the use of CRR. The central bank can affect how banks deploy their funds by imposing CRR rules. By encouraging banks to lend to underprivileged groups or invest in important industries, they may advance financial inclusion and economic expansion.

4. What are the Benefits of maintaining CRR in Home Loans?

By preserving bank stability and solvency, maintaining CRR in home loans helps the larger financial system. When banks maintain CRR, a reserve of liquid assets is built up that can be utilized to pay for unforeseen financial commitments. Due to its ability to maintain consistent interest rates and guarantee the security of the deposits made by house loan borrowers with the lending institution, this financial stability indirectly helps home loan borrowers.

5. What does CRR stand for?

The acronym CRR represents "Cash Reserve Ratio." It is a tool for monetary policy that central banks employ to manage the minimum quantity of liquid cash that banks must maintain in reserve.

6. Why is CRR important?

CRR is essential for a number of reasons. Firstly, it keeps banks solvent by providing a safety net against unforeseen obligations. Second, by maintaining economic stability through monetary supply regulation, it aids in the control of inflation. Lastly, it is a key component of a country's monetary policy since it stabilizes the larger financial system.

7. What are the components of CRR?

The cash reserves that banks must maintain with the central bank are one of the components of CRR. These reserves cannot be used for lending or investing; instead, they represent a component of the bank's deposit liabilities. Rather, they act as a financial safety net for the larger financial system.

Disclaimer: *Please note that this article is for your knowledge only. Loans are disbursed at the sole discretion of SMFG Grihashakti. Final approval, loan terms, disbursal process, foreclosure charges and foreclosure process will be subject to SMFG Grihashakti’s policy at the time of loan application. If you wish to know more about our products and services, please contact us.

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